Cardiovascular System

The cardiovascular system, also known as the circulatory system, is a complex network of organs, blood vessels, and the heart that plays a crucial role in transporting oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body. Its main functions include the transportation of substances, regulation of body temperature, maintenance of fluid balance, and support of immune responses

Key components of the cardiovascular system include:


The heart is a muscular organ that acts as a pump, sending oxygen-rich blood to the body’s tissues and organs. It consists of four chambers – two atria (upper chambers) and two ventricles (lower chambers) – that work in coordination to ensure efficient blood circulation.

Blood Vessels

Blood vessels are classified into three main types: arteries, veins, and capillaries.

  • Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body’s tissues. The largest artery is the aorta.
  • Veins transport deoxygenated blood back to the heart. The largest vein is the superior and inferior vena cava.
  • Capillaries are tiny, thin-walled vessels that facilitate the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products between the blood and the body’s cells.


  • This pathway involves the circulation of blood between the heart and the lungs. Deoxygenated blood from the body is pumped to the lungs, where it picks up oxygen and releases carbon dioxide.
  • Systemic Circulation: In this pathway, oxygenated blood is pumped from the heart to the body’s tissues and organs, delivering nutrients and oxygen and picking up waste products for elimination.

Maintaining a healthy cardiovascular system involves adopting a balanced diet, staying physically active, managing stress, avoiding smoking, and regularly monitoring blood pressure and cholesterol levels.